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COMPREHNSIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF THE RIGHT VENTRICLE IN MURINE MODELS
Andrew Kohut*, Nishi Patel, Harpreet Singh
Drexel University College of Medicine Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology
Corresponding Author: Andrew Kohut ,Tel: 215-762-3559, Email: andrew.kohut@drexelmed.edu
ABSTRACT
Background:
Non-invasive high-resolution echocardiography to evaluate cardiovascular function of small animals is increasingly being used due to availability of genetically engineered murine models. Even though guidelines and standard values for humans were revised by the American Society of Echocardiography, evaluations on murine models are not performed according to any standard protocols. These limitations are preventing translation of preclinical evaluations to clinical meaningful conclusions. We have assessed the right heart of two commonly used murine models according to standard clinical guidelines, and provided the practical guide and standard values for cardiac assessments. Methods and
Results:
Right heart echocardiography evaluations of CD1 and C57BL6 mice were performed under 1-3% isoflurane anesthesia using Vevo® 2100 Imaging System with a high-frequency (30 MHZ) probe (VisualSonics MS400). We have provided a practical guide on how to image and assess the right heart of a mouse which is frequently used to evaluate development of right heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension. Our results show significance differences between CD1 and C57BL6 mice. Right ventricle structural assessment showed significantly larger (p<0.05, n=11-15) size, and pulmonary artery diameter. Right heart systolic and diastolic functions were identical for both strains. Conclusions: Our practical guide on how to image and assess the right heart of murine models provides the first comprehensive standard values which can be used for preclinical research studies using echocardiography. Additionally, our results indicate that there is a high variability between mouse species and experimental models should be carefully selected for cardiac evaluations.
Keywords: Echocardiography, Right heart, Mouse
Volume 25, No 3
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